Switch Hub DHCP


In HUB there is no reference about location of devices + if there are any errors while carrying out logical operations, then ALL devices and operations are affected.

In a SWITCH all reference details are maintained + if error happens between points A junction and D junction then it doesn’t affect other connections or junctions (that is why SWITCH is called an intelligent device)

MAC Address (Media Access Control Address)
It is a 48 bit number.
It comes with NIC card/adapter.
It is of 2 types
  • Dynamic (Automatic Assigning of address)
·         Any PC can access the SWITCH or other devices
  • Static (Manual assignment of addresses)
·         One port is used/reserved for one specific PC (i.e unique MAC address)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
This protocol is only used for distributing IPs

With DHCP IPs can be assigned in 2 ways
1)   Static
2)   Dynamic
·         No manual configuring
·         Pool of IPs is distributed from one special system (server)

ROUTER can also behave like DHC server, which distributes IPs
Those who require IPs are called DHCP clients.

DORA process – Discover, Offer, Request, Acknowledge.

Discover – Searches for server/s
Offer – Upon location of server, the server offers list of available pool of IPs
Request – Client makes request for one IP, from the offered list of IPs from the pool
Acknowledgement – After an IP is assigned by the Server, it asks for an acknowledgement to the Client. After this confirmation from client, the IP so assigned, is removed from the server’s pool of available IPs for distribution.

Note: Broadcast IP can be used to “broadcast” data/message/info to all systems/devices connected.
BUT in real time BC IP cannot be used to ping other devices/systems etc…


1) Half Duplex
Best example of HALF DUPLEX – Walky Talky
At any given time only one device is the sender, the other device MUST be the receiver.
Like in walky talky, only one person can speak at a time, the other end can only listen.

2) Full Duplex
Best example of FULL DUPLEX – cell/mobile phone
At any given time both users/devices can interact and share information